We have already discussed what bias, mental shortcuts and cognitive prejudices are in this article. We all have cognitive prejudices, whether we want to admit it or not. They develop in the course of our lives, learning from experiences and thanks to them we can take "mental shortcuts" to deal with different types of situations and make decisions quickly.
Cognitive prejudices are usually an indication of our values and beliefs and in many cases they can be useful: for example, to make decisions more quickly when the situation requires it and can help keep us safe from emotional or physical stress.
However, cognitive prejudices in learning can also lead to poor judgement and a resistance to accepting and assimilating new information in our thought processes.
In the infographic, the 10 most common prejudices that hinder learning are presented in summary form. In fact, it is necessary to be aware of them before we can stem them.
The tendency to easily accept information that confirms our point of view and to reject information that does not support it.
2. Anchoring and polarization
The tendency to give too much weight or importance to information - often the first information you learn about a topic.
3. Dunning-Kruger effect
The tendency of people who are not competent on a subject to overestimate their competence and, conversely, of very competent people to underestimate their competence.
4. Knowledge bias
The difficulty of well informed people on a subject to see the same subject from the point of view of a less informed person.
5. Functional fixation
This prejudice limits a person to using an object or idea beyond the way it is traditionally used.
6. Mere-exposure effect
The tendency to appreciate something or to agree with an idea just because it is familiar to us.
7. Not invented here bias
The tendency to devalue information, ideas, standards or products developed outside of a certain group.
The impulse to do the opposite of what you are asked to do to preserve your freedom of choice.
9. Prejudice to the status quo
The "reassuring" tendency to want things to stay the same as they have always been.
10. Justification bias of the system
The tendency to actively try to maintain the status quo.
Article taken from eLearningInfographics
Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator