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Cognitive distortions in learning - Infographic

Cognitive distortions in learning - Infographic
Anthea De Domenico
 Anthea De Domenico
16/04/2020 : Cognitive prejudices, i.e. our beliefs, can lead to systematic deviations of reality, even in learning.

We have already discussed what bias, mental shortcuts and cognitive prejudices are in this article. We all have cognitive prejudices, whether we want to admit it or not. They develop in the course of our lives, learning from experiences and thanks to them we can take "mental shortcuts" to deal with different types of situations and make decisions quickly.

Cognitive prejudices are usually an indication of our values and beliefs and in many cases they can be useful: for example, to make decisions more quickly when the situation requires it and can help keep us safe from emotional or physical stress.

However, cognitive prejudices in learning can also lead to poor judgement and a resistance to accepting and assimilating new information in our thought processes.

In the infographic, the 10 most common prejudices that hinder learning are presented in summary form. In fact, it is necessary to be aware of them before we can stem them.

1. Confirmation bias 

The tendency to easily accept information that confirms our point of view and to reject information that does not support it.

2. Anchoring and polarization

The tendency to give too much weight or importance to information - often the first information you learn about a topic.

3. Dunning-Kruger effect

The tendency of people who are not competent on a subject to overestimate their competence and, conversely, of very competent people to underestimate their competence.

4. Knowledge bias

The difficulty of well informed people on a subject to see the same subject from the point of view of a less informed person.

5. Functional fixation

This prejudice limits a person to using an object or idea beyond the way it is traditionally used.

6. Mere-exposure effect

The tendency to appreciate something or to agree with an idea just because it is familiar to us.

7. Not invented here bias

The tendency to devalue information, ideas, standards or products developed outside of a certain group.

8. Reactor

The impulse to do the opposite of what you are asked to do to preserve your freedom of choice.

9. Prejudice to the status quo

The "reassuring" tendency to want things to stay the same as they have always been.

10. Justification bias of the system

The tendency to actively try to maintain the status quo.

Article taken from eLearningInfographics

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